FINANCEIRIZAÇÃO E CONDOMINIALIZAÇÃO: UM OLHAR SOBRE AS TRANSFORMAÇÕES NA PRODUÇÃO E NA PROPRIEDADE DA HABITAÇÃO NO BRASIL

ABSTRACT

In Brazil, since the middle of the first decade this century, increased centralization of capital in the real estate sector and its overlapping with financial capital presented the specificity of interfering at the same time, in the form of production and types of property housing. Regarding the first aspect, a process of reorganizing large companies has led to a new level of capital accumulation, in which the “incorporate form” contaminates that which until then was only restricted to State promotion of housing. Regarding the latter, it turns out that condominiums, a property form used extensively by the market for the higher income population, has become widespread for the production of more affordable housing. Faced with this problem, this article seeks to analyze, on the one hand, the changes that occurred in the capitalist form/type of housing production, stressing the production activity itself (the construction, in other words, the production of value), finance (in their different origins) and the State. On the other hand, we seek to discuss the centrality of widespread types of condominium estates, both their function as a tool for reaching new heights of capital reproduction in the sector (Rufino, 2012), as well as the implications of this process in the production of space and in the lives of families. In relation to the production form, large contractors and developers started producing housing through large scale production guided by industrial and financial engagement using heavy public subsidies, parastatal funds and private equity; supported by a legal and institutional security; with demands guaranteed by the expansion of consumer loans. In relation to property form, the spread of condominiums for low-income people certainly represents a transformation; not only in the organization of peripheral areas of large Brazilian cities; but also in the lives of beneficiaries of housing financing programs.

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